When a swine disease strikes, you want helpful information immediately. Fortunately, there’s SOURCE, a systematic approach to disease control, prevention and management using a step-by-step process developed by Boehringer Ingelheim.
The fourth step in the PED SOURCE process is “reduce risks.” To some, it may seem impossible, but there are things you can do to help reduce the risk of infecting your herd.
Status of replacement animals
If replacement animals have tested positive for PED, they should only be introduced to herds where PED exists and are in a program in diminish the virus. For farms trying to eliminate or prevent PED in their herds, any replacement pigs introduced to the herd must test negative for the virus. If the status of replacement pigs is unknown, the current status can be obtained through diagnostics.
If nearby farms have tested positive for PED (within 2-4 miles), enlist stringent biosecurity measures for any person or vehicles entering the farm. Designate a clear Line of Separation – also known as the “clean/dirty line”, or a line that separates “inside the farm” from “outside the farm.” This line should not be crossed by persons, animals, vehicles or equipment without being cleaned and disinfected properly.
- Any vehicles arriving to the farm from outside of the farm should not cross the Line of Separation, including any market trucks, as well as personal vehicles.
- The load out area should be at the Line of Separation, so that the pigs remain “inside the farm” until loading onto the truck, which remains “outside the farm.”
- Do not allow live haul vehicles to enter farm without a thorough cleaning and disinfection.
- Prepare the market truck by cleaning and disinfecting all areas of the truck between loads, including pedals, door handles, steering wheel, etc.
- Clean and disinfect all equipment, including sort-boards, rattlepaddles, etc.
- Clean boots and coveralls should be worn for each load, and once worn, should be stored in a separate area until they can be laundered.
- No human traffic, including the truck driver, should ever cross the Line of Separation (from either direction).
- Ensure adequate manpower is available to load the pigs.
- Do not allow pigs to exit the truck during the load out process.
- All clothing and boots worn to load pigs should be laundered.
- The load out area should also be cleaned and disinfected immediately after the truck has pulled away.
If feed is delivered to the farm, ensure that any vehicles or personnel coming from outside of the farm do not cross the line of separation. Any materials or equipment that are used to transfer feed from the truck to the bin must be cleaned and disinfected prior to and after use. The infectivity of PED in feed may be eliminated/reduced by using FDA-approved feed additives and/or storing feed at least two weeks prior to consumption.
- All animals arriving at the farm should be washed before entering any housing facilities. If quarantined, pigs should be thoroughly cleaned before joining the rest of the herd.
- A minimum of an overnight period of downtime between farm visits is often preferred for humans.
- Use disposable coveralls, boots, clipboards, pens, etc. to avoid contamination from building to building or farm to farm.
- Wash and disinfect all vehicles that have traveled away from the farm before returning to the farm to avoid outside contamination.
- Once on a farm, park away from both the pig barn(s) and the waste control area. Avoid parking or driving in muddy areas. Keep windows up to prevent pests from entering the vehicle.
- Use disposable clothing and boots when entering animal housing areas.
- Know where the Line of Separation is on the farm. If the farm visit requires being both inside and outside of the farm, perform all inside-the-farm duties prior to going outside of the farm.
- Do not bring any food or drink onto the farm.
- Following the farm visit, contain all garbage, clothing and used equipment in a garbage bag and place away from clean supplies.
- Remove dirty boots and coveralls and clean hands with hand sanitizer.
- Wash and disinfect the outside of the vehicle, and remove any mud or debris from the inside of the vehicle.
- Once at home, launder all clothing and footwear and shower.
- Avoid ALL unnecessary human traffic.
- The PED virus can stay viable in manure stored at 40 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 28 days, and potentially up to six months, and can re-infect susceptible pigs if brought to the floor surface.
- All farms should measure and record manure depth in each structure weekly, and should also record the amount of manure removed when spreading manure.(9)
- When scheduling a manure hauler, share biosecurity protocols for the farm with them.
- Explain where the Line of Separation is on the farm and that manure haulers should not cross that line.
- Do not allow manure-hauling crew to enter the barns, office areas or come in direct contact with the pigs.
- Farm personnel should avoid any direct contact with the crew and pumping equipment.
- If farm personnel must cross the Line of Separation, clean boots, coveralls and gloves should be worn, and then disposed of once used.
- Clean and disinfect any reusable gear that came in contact with the pumping crew or equipment.
- Consider providing a water source away from the farm for the manure hauler to use when cleaning their equipment before leaving the farm.
- The Animal Disposal Unit (ADU) should be located away from other livestock and should not allow access by wildlife.
- Transporting mortalities to the ADU should be the last task of the day, and should be brought to the Line of Separation so those outside of the farm do not have to cross the line to access the mortalities.
- Wear designated coveralls and boots when handling mortalities.
- Any tractor or truck equipment used to move mortalities should be washed, disinfected and dried before use.
- Once mortalities are placed in the ADU (without crossing the Line of Separation), equipment must be washed and disinfected again, and clothing and boots should be removed, laundered and stored away from livestock areas.
Any equipment shared with neighboring farms should be cleaned and disinfected each time it arrive at a different farm to limit the spread of the PED virus via manure, pests or debris.
Source herd status
Introducing animals to a new location can be a risk. It is important to know the current status of replacement animals or pigs moving from the nursery to the growing finish phase. It may be useful to quarantine animals for at least three weeks before they are introduced to the rest of the herd. If any symptoms of PED appear, contact the farm’s veterinarian immediately.
- Proper sanitation is critical to limit the spread of the PED virus. Proper sanitation includes a hot-water wash, disinfection and adequate drying time.
- Most virucidal disinfectants are very effective against PED. They include cresol, sodium hydroxide (2%), formalin (1%), sodium carbonate (4% anhydrous or 10% crystalline, with 0.1% detergent), ionic and noionic detergents, strong iodophors (1%) in phosphoric acid, and lipid solvents such as chloroform (10).
- A PED virus sanitation protocol has been shown in Boehringer Ingelheim internal studies to consistently produce PCR negative environmental test results. This protocol includes:
- Pressure wash
- Descale/biofilm removal
- Scrub with firm bristle brush